Deep MRI reconstruction is commonly performed with conditional models that
de-alias undersampled acquisitions to recover images consistent with
fully-sampled data. Since conditional models are trained with knowledge of the
imaging operator, they can show poor generalization across variable operators.
Unconditional models instead learn generative image priors decoupled from the
imaging operator to improve reliability against domain shifts. Recent diffusion
models are particularly promising given their high sample fidelity.
Nevertheless, inference with a static image prior can perform suboptimally.
Here we propose the first adaptive diffusion prior for MRI reconstruction,
AdaDiff, to improve performance and reliability against domain shifts. AdaDiff
leverages an efficient diffusion prior trained via adversarial mapping over
large reverse diffusion steps. A two-phase reconstruction is executed following
training: a rapid-diffusion phase that produces an initial reconstruction with
the trained prior, and an adaptation phase that further refines the result by
updating the prior to minimize reconstruction loss on acquired data.
Demonstrations on multi-contrast brain MRI clearly indicate that AdaDiff
outperforms competing conditional and unconditional methods under domain
shifts, and achieves superior or on par within-domain performance.