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Measuring Tail Risks

Author
Kan Chen, Tuoyuan Cheng
Date Updated
2022/09/15
Category
q-fin.RM
Date Published
2022/09/15
Date Retrieved
2022/09/16
Description
Value at risk (VaR) and expected shortfall (ES) are common high quantile-based risk measures adopted in financial regulations and risk management. In this paper, we propose a tail risk measure based on the most probable maximum size of risk events (MPMR) that can occur over a length of time. MPMR underscores the dependence of the tail risk on the risk management time frame. Unlike VaR and ES, MPMR does not require specifying a confidence level. We derive the risk measure analytically for several well-known distributions. In particular, for the case where the size of the risk event follows a power law or Pareto distribution, we show that MPMR also scales with the number of observations $n$ (or equivalently the length of the time interval) by a power law, $\text{MPMR}(n) \propto n^{\eta}$, where $\eta$ is the scaling exponent. The scale invariance allows for reasonable estimations of long-term risks based on the extrapolation of more reliable estimations of short-term risks. The scaling relationship also gives rise to a robust and low-bias estimator of the tail index (TI) $\xi$ of the size distribution, $\xi = 1/\eta$. We demonstrate the use of this risk measure for describing the tail risks in financial markets as well as the risks associated with natural hazards (earthquakes, tsunamis, and excessive rainfall).
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URL
https://arxiv.org/abs/2209.07092
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